Lyrics from “Raízes” by Renato Teixeira (~1992)

Galo cantou // Cock crowed
Madrugada na campina // Dawn on the plain
Manhã menina // Tender morning
Tá na flor do meu jardim // Is on the flower in my garden
Hoje é domingo // Today is Sunday
Me desculpe eu tô sem pressa // Forgive me I’m in no hurry
Nem preciso de conversa // I have no need for conversation
Não há nada prá cumprir // No obligations to fulfill
Passar o dia // Passing the day
Ouvindo o som de umas viola // Listening to the sound of some violas
Eu quero que o mundo agora // I want the world now
Se mostre pros bem-te-vi // To show itself to the bem-te-vi (Great Kiskadee)
Mando daqui das bandas do rural lembranças // I send out from here, from the rural parts, remembrances
Vibrações da nova hora // Vibrations of the new hour
Prá você que não tá aqui // For you, who’s not here
Amanhecer // The break of day
é uma lição do universo // Is a lesson of the universe
Que nos ensina // That teaches us
Que é preciso renascer // That it’s necessary to be reborn
O novo amanhece // The new dawns
O novo amanhece // The new dawns
Já tem rolinha // There are already doves
Lá no terreiro varrido // Out on the brushed-earth yard
E o orvalho brilha // And the dew shines
Como pérolas ao sol // Like pearls in the sun
Tem uma sombra// There’s a shadow
Que caminha pras montanhas // That creeps toward the mountains
Se enfiando feito alma // Slipping like a soul
Por dentro do matagal // Into the bush
E quanto mais // And the more
A luz vai invadindo a terra // The sun spreads over the earth
O que a noite não revela // What the night doesn’t reveal
O dia mostra prá mim // The day shows to me
A rádio agora // The radio now
Tá tocando Rancho Fundo// Is playing Rancho Fundo
Somos só eu e mundo // It’s just me and the world
E tudo começa aqui // And everything begins here
Amanhecer // Daybreak
é uma lição do universo // Is a lesson of the universe
Que nos ensina // That teaches us
Que é preciso renascer // That it’s necessary to be reborn
O novo amanhece // The new dawns
O novo amanhece // The new dawns
— Commentary —
Pena Branca (right) and Xavantinho.

For the second post on songs about Sundays, here’s one of my favorite songs from a beautiful album of caipira, or folk-country, music, Renato Teixeira & Pena Branca e Xavantinho: Ao Vivo em Tatuí (1992). The song was composed by Renato Teixeira, one of Brazil’s most prolific singer-songwriters in the caipira genre. That genre is associated with the countryside of the central and southeastern states of São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. But tellingly, Teixeira was born in the city — in Santos, São Paulo. Songs like “Raízes,” or “Roots,” are typical of the caipira revival of the 1980s and ’90s, of which Teixeira was a driving force (for more on that, see this previous post): As more and more rural migrants made their way to greater São Paulo or adjacent cities such as Santos — Brazil became a majority urban country around 1970, and was nearly 70 percent urban by 1980; and greater São Paulo exploded from 2.6 million in 1950, to 8.1 million in 1970, to 15.4 million in 1991 — these popular songs expressed deep longing and cultural affinity for a simpler bygone country life that many may never have experienced firsthand.

The caipira style was typically performed by pairs of brothers, perfectly exemplified by Pena Branca (1939-2010) e Xavantinho (1942-1999), who, like many such duos, began singing together as children on local radio programs in their hometown of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. In 1968, they moved to São Paulo to pursue a career in music together. There, they were helped by popular performers such as Teixeira and Milton Nascimento, whose “Cio da Terra,” composed with Chico Buarque, they popularized with a 1980 recording. (Here they are performing that song with Milton in 1987: https://youtu.be/3BDTbOnC8-I)

The brothers resisted crossing over into the more commercial sertanejo, or (modern) country, genre, and continued performing together in the traditional caipira style until Xavantinho’s early death in 1999, at age 56, from complications from a motorcycle accident five years earlier. The violas they played, and that are referenced in the lyrics, are the ten-string guitar typical of this style.

“Rancho Fundo” in the song refers to the classic Brazilian song “No Rancho Fundo” (1931), by Ary Barroso and Lamartine Babo, which has a similarly nostalgic and romanticized caipira theme. In 1989, the popular duo Chitãozinho e Xororó released a typically caipira version of the song, cementing its place in the caipira canon. The bem-te-vi  bird referenced in the song is one of the most common in Brazil, and one of the first to begin singing at daybreak, which probably explains its popularity in Brazilian folk song.

“Tocando em Frente” and “Amora”

Lyrics from “Tocando em Frente” by Renato Teixeira and Almir Sater, released by Maria Bethânia (1990)

Good Audio Version (Renato Teixeira)

I go slowly because I’ve already been in a rush
And I wear this smile because I’ve already cried too much
Today I feel stronger, happier – who knows
I carry with me only the certainty that I know very little, or I know nothing

Getting to know mannerisms and mornings
The flavor of  almonds and apples
A lot of love is necessary to push forward
Peace is necessary to be able to go on
And rain is necessary for blooming

I think that to make good on life may be simply
To understand the march, and go playing ahead
Like an old cattleman driving the oxen, I go on driving the days
Down the long road, I go, I’m a road

Each one of us composes our own story
And each carries within the gift of being able to be happy
Everyone loves one day, everyone cries, one day we arrive, and the next we leave.

— Interpretation —

In 1992, Renato Teixeira recorded with Pena Branca and Xavantinho, perhaps Brazil's best loved caipira duo.
In 1992, Renato Teixeira, center, recorded with Pena Branca and Xavantinho, perhaps Brazil’s best-loved caipira duo.

In spite of having been born in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Renato Teixeira is one of Brazil’s most prolific singer-songwriters in the caipira genre — a country-folk style of music from (or about) the hinterlands of the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais,  Goias, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul.  This rural genre is closely and often indistinguishably related to classic country music in Brazil, known as sertanejo. (Sertanejo has taken on a different meaning in recent years, with the boom in popularity of pop sertanejo duos). Teixeira’s song “Romaria,” a sensation when sung by Elis Regina in 1977, is credited with having changed the connotations of the word caipira and cut away at prejudices against caipiras in Brazil. TV Globo used the song in its miniseries Carga Pesada, and the revered poet Haroldo de Campos told Veja that he regarded the song as one of the best of the decade.

“Tocando em Frente” became another of Teixeira’s greatest hits. He wrote it with Almir Sater, a singer-songwriter and actor with deeper caipira roots, from Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. The song has been recorded by a long list of popular Brazilian singers.

Teixeira, born May 20, 1945, spent much of his childhood in Ubatuba, on the northern coast of São Paulo state, before moving at age fourteen to Taubaté, São Paulo.  In his early twenties he began working in radio in Taubaté and was introduced to sertanejo music.  He entered his first MPB Festival in 1967, with “Dadá Maria,” sung by Gal Costa, which qualified for the finals and is an example of his more classic MPB compositions from the late 1960s. In 1972, after participating in an album on Brazilian music from the West, Midwest and Southwest, he began to incorporate more caipira themes and musical elements into his songs.  The success of “Romaria” solidified his mastery of the genre.

In 1985 Teixeira played on the album Grandes Cantores Sertanejos (Great Country Singers), and in 1992, he recorded a live album, Ao Vivo em Tatuí, with one of Brazil’s most beloved caipira duos, the brothers Pena Branca and Xavantinho, for which they received the prestigious Sharp Award for best regional album of the year. The album features songs like “Tocando em Frente,” “Amora” (below),  Caetano Veloso’s “Canto do povo de um lugar,” and “O Cio da Terra,” by Chico Buarque and Milton Nascimento.

A few notes about the translation:  In an attempt to keep some of the alliteration from the original Portuguese in the second stanza (in English), I stretched the translation a bit, using “almonds” instead of “doughs,” which would be a literal translation of “massas,” and “mannerisms” for “manhas,” which would be closer to something like “quirks,” “caprices,” or “cunning.”  In the Portuguese version, all four words begin with “m” and are much more similar phonetically. “Tocar” in Portuguese means both to play (an instrument) and to drive (cattle), so in the second to last stanza it is used throughout in the Portuguese version, while the verb changes in English. “Tocar” can also mean simply “to go on,” which allows for another possible interpretation of “ir tocando em frente” more along the lines of “keep on keepin’ on.” Finally, in some versions, like the audio version provided above, the lyrics differ slightly, saying, “I feel that to carry on in life may be simply…”

Lyrics from “Amora” by Renato Teixeira (1979)

Good Audio Version

After the curve in the road, there’s a guava tree
I feel my eyes water every time I pass by
I feel my heart wounded, wrapped in solitude
I think the fruit of the heart must be sweet

I’m going to tell your father that you date…
I’m going to tell your mother that you ignore me
I’m going to paint my lips the red of the blackberries
That grow over yonder, in the yard of the house where you live

Lyrics in Portuguese: “Tocando em Frente”

Ando devagar
Porque já tive pressa
E levo esse sorriso
Porque já chorei demais

Hoje me sinto mais forte,
Mais feliz, quem sabe
Só levo a certeza
De que muito pouco sei,
Ou nada sei

Conhecer as manhas
E as manhãs
O sabor das massas
E das maçãs

É preciso amor
Pra poder pulsar
É preciso paz pra poder sorrir
É preciso a chuva para florir

Penso que cumprir a vida
Seja simplesmente
Compreender a marcha
E ir tocando em frente

Como um velho boiadeiro
Levando a boiada
Eu vou tocando os dias
Pela longa estrada, eu vou
Estrada eu sou

Conhecer as manhas
E as manhãs
O sabor das massas
E das maçãs

É preciso amor
Pra poder pulsar
É preciso paz pra poder sorrir
É preciso a chuva para florir

Todo mundo ama um dia,
Todo mundo chora
Um dia a gente chega
E no outro vai embora

Cada um de nós compõe a sua história
Cada ser em si
Carrega o dom de ser capaz
E ser feliz

Lyrics in Portuguese: “Amora”

Depois da curva da estrada
Tem um pé de araçá
Sinto vir água nos olhos
Toda vez que passo lá

Sinto o coração flechado
Cercado de solidão
Penso que deve ser doce
A fruta do coração

Vou contar para o seu pai
Que você namora
Vou contar pra sua mãe
Que você me ignora

Vou pintar a minha boca
Do vermelho da amora
Que nasce lá no quintal
Da casa onde você mora